Taufiq Rafat’s Play Foothold and application of Genette’s Theory of Narratology of Timeline


1: Maleeha Asghar 2: Muhammad Ahsan


This paper aims investigating Taufiq Rafat’s play Foothold in the light of Gerard Genette’s narratological theory of timeline. This theory of timeline is basically an integral part of the two broader components of narration and focalization. Signification in a narrative largely draws upon the agencies of ‘telling’ and ‘seeing’. Telling denotes the verbalization of all the events in a narrative and the seeing accounts for the vision that works behind the aestheticization of the story. Both of these two areas cannot operate/function properly if the provisions of time that are pursued there are not skillfully manipulated.  The timeline works with the help of various instruments that lie in its kit. Analepsis and prolepsis are two basic techniques to impart the artistic character to the narrative. Both the narration and filter in the narrative also make use of the three facets of focalization: the perceptual facet; the psychological facet and the ideological facet. In the light of Genette’s theory the play Foothold is studied under three time slab: sequence, duration, and frequency. The frequency is broken further broken into discrete, iterative, and the repeated. The present study reveals that Taufiq Rafat’s Foothold is encapsulated in a short space of the text with the non-linear definition of time through which the writer has presented occurrence of many signification based years of Saleem and his Disciples.


How to Cite
1: Maleeha Asghar 2: Muhammad Ahsan. (2021). Taufiq Rafat’s Play Foothold and application of Genette’s Theory of Narratology of Timeline. Multidisciplinary Journal of Instruction, 2(2), 10-18. Retrieved from https://journal.mdji.org/index.php/MDJI/article/view/59